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13.4.3 Extensions of the Euler-Lagrange Equations

Several extensions of the Euler-Lagrange equation can be constructed
to handle complications that arise in addition to kinetic energy and
potential energy in a conservative field. Each extension usually
involves adding more terms to (13.129) to account for the
new complication. Problems that can be handled in this way are closed
kinematic chains, nonholonomic constraints, and nonconservative forces
(such as friction).

**Subsections**

Steven M LaValle
2012-04-20