More importantly, humans resolve much ambiguity by simply moving their heads. Just as head movement allows the powerful vision depth cue of parallax, it also provides better auditory localization. In fact, auditory parallax even provides another localization cue because nearby audio sources change their azimuth and elevation faster than distant ones. With regard to ITD, imagine having a different cone of confusion for every head pose, all within a short time. By integrating other senses, the relative head poses can be estimated, which roughly allows for an intersection of multiple cones of confusion to be made, until the sound source is precisely pinpointed. Finally, recall that the motion of a source relative to the receiver causes the Doppler effect. As in the case of vision, the issue of perceived self motion versus the motion of objects emerges based on the auditory input arises. This could contribute to vection (recall Section 8.2).
Steven M LaValle 2020-01-06