We now jump from smell to taste. On the human tongue lie about 10,000 taste buds, which each contains a group of about to taste receptors . The receptors live for an average of days, with regeneration constantly occurring. Five basic types of taste receptors have been identified:
Taste perception is closely related to the taste receptor types. One of the most widely known models is Henning's tetrahedron from 1927, which is a 3D space of tastes that is generated using barycentric coordinates (Section 7.2) over four extreme vertices that each represent pure sweet, salty, sour, or bitter. Thus, each taste is a linear interpolation the four components. This of course, neglects umami, which was added to the list of receptor types very recently [43,232]. Adaptation occurs for taste, including an aversion to foods that might have been coincident with sickness. The concept of flavor is a perceptual experience that combines cues from taste, smell, temperature, touch, vision, and sound. Therefore, it is challenging to understand the mechanisms that create a flavor experience .
Steven M LaValle 2020-01-06