12.3.4 Optimal Navigation Without a Geometric Model

This section presents gap navigation trees (GNTs) [943,945], which are a data structure and associated planning algorithm for performing optimal navigation in the continuous environments that were considered in Section 12.3.3. It is assumed in this section that the robot is equipped with a gap sensor, as depicted in Figure 11.16 of Section 11.5.1. At every instant in time, the robot has available one action for each gap that is visible in the gap sensor. If an action is applied, then the robot moves toward the corresponding gap. This can be applied over continuous time, which enables the robot to ``chase'' a particular gap. The robot has no other sensing information: It has no compass and no ability to measure distances. Therefore, it is impossible to construct a map of the environment that contains metric information.

Assume that the robot is placed into an unknown but simply connected planar environment, $ X$. The GNT can be extended to the case of multiply connected environments; however, in this case there are subtle issues with distinguishability, and it is only possible to guarantee optimality within a homotopy class of paths [944]. By analyzing the way that critical events occur in the gap sensor, a tree representation can be built that indicates how to move optimally in the environment, even though precise measurements cannot be taken. Since a gap sensor cannot even measure distances, it may seem unusual that the robot can move along shortest paths without receiving any distance (or metric) information. This will once again illustrate the power of I-spaces.

The appearance of the environment relative to the position of the robot is encoded as a tree that indicates how the gaps change as the robot moves. It provides the robot with sufficient information to move to any part of the environment while traveling along the shortest path. It is important to understand that the tree does not correspond to some static map of the environment. It expresses how the environment appears relative to the robot and may therefore change as the robot moves in the environment.

Figure 12.27: A gap-chasing action is applied, which moves the robot straight in the direction of the gap until the boundary is contacted. Once this occurs, a new part of the environment becomes visible.

The root of the tree represents the gap sensor. For each gap that currently appears in the sensor, an edge is connected to the root. Let these edges be called root edges. Each root edge corresponds to an action that can be applied by the robot. By selecting a root edge, the action moves the robot along a straight line toward that gap. Thus, there is a simple control model that enables the robot to move precisely toward a particular point along the boundary, $ \partial X$, as shown in Figure 12.27.

Let $ V(x)$ be the visibility region, which is the set of all points in $ X$ that are visible from $ x$. Let $ X \setminus V(x)$ be called the shadow region, which is the set of all points not visible from $ x$. Let each connected component of the shadow region be called a shadow component. Every gap in the gap sensor corresponds to a line segment in $ X$ that touches $ \partial X$ in two places (for example, see Figure 11.15a). Each of these segments forms a boundary between the visibility region and a shadow component. If the robot would like to travel to this shadow component, the shortest way is to move directly to the gap. When moving toward a gap, the robot eventually reaches $ \partial X$, at which point a new action must be selected.

Steven M LaValle 2012-04-20