The last transform to be applied in the chain (3.41) is the *viewport transform* . After has been applied, the and coordinates each range from to . One last step is required to bring the projected points to the coordinates used to index pixels on a physical display. Let be the number of horizontal pixels and be the number of vertical pixels. For example, and for a 1080p display. Suppose that the display is indexed with rows running from 0 to and columns from 0 to . Furthermore, is in the lower left corner. In this case, the viewport transform is

Steven M LaValle 2020-01-06